Finland Facts and Figures


Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia


total: 338,145 sq km
land: 303,815 sq km
water: 34,330 sq km

Natural resources:

timber, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, chromite, nickel, gold, silver, limestone

Geography – note:

Long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain


5,498,211 (July 2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 118


noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish

Ethnic groups:

Finn 93.4%, Swede 5.6%, Russian 0.5%, Estonian 0.3%, Roma 0.1%, Sami 0.1% (2006)


Finnish (official) 89%, Swedish (official) 5.3%, Russian 1.3%, other 4.4% (2014 est.)


Lutheran 73.8%, Orthodox 1.1%, other or none 25.1% (2014 est.)

Age structure:

0-14 years: 16.42% (male 461,432/female 441,244)
15-24 years: 11.6% (male 325,919/female 312,045)
25-54 years: 37.9% (male 1,063,494/female 1,020,194)
55-64 years: 13.42% (male 362,788/female 374,985)
65 years and over: 20.66% (male 492,143/female 643,967) (2016 est.)
population pyramid:

Dependency ratios:

total dependency ratio: 58.3%
youth dependency ratio: 25.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 32.4%
potential support ratio: 3.1% (2015 est.)

Median age:

total: 42.4 years
male: 40.8 years
female: 44.3 years (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 25

Population growth rate:

0.38% (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 169

Birth rate:

10.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 185

Death rate:

9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 42

Net migration rate:

3 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
country comparison to the world: 37

Population distribution:

the vast majority of people are found in the south; the northern interior areas remain sparsely populated


urban population: 84.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanisation: 0.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)

Major urban areas – population:

HELSINKI (capital) 1.18 million (2015)

Sex ratio:

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2016 est.)

Executive branch:

chief of state: President Sauli NIINISTO (since 1 March 2012)
head of government: Prime Minister Juha SIPILA (since 28 May 2015)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 6-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5 February 2012 (next to be held in February 2018); prime minister appointed by Parliament in 2015
election results: percent of vote in first round – Sauli NIINISTO (Kok) 37%, Pekka HAAVISTO (Vihr) 18.8%, Paavo VAYRYNEN (Kesk) 17.5%, Timo SOINI (TF) 9.4%, Paavo LIPPONEN (SDP) 6.7%, Paavo ARHINMAKI (Vas) 5.5%, Eva BIAUDET (SFP) 2.7%, Sari ESSAYAH (KD) 2.5%; Sauli NIINISTO elected president  in second round held on 5 February 2012 – NIINISTO 62.6%, HAAVISTO 37.4%; Juha SIPILA appointed prime minister

Legislative branch:

description: unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; 199 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member in the province of Aland directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 4-year terms)
elections: last held on 19 April 2015 (next to be held by April 2019)
election results: percent of vote by party – Kesk 21.1%, PS 17.6%, Kok 18.2%, SDP 16.5%, Vihr 8.5%, Vas 7.1%, SFP 4.9%, KD 3.5%, other 2.6%; seats by party – Kesk 49, PS 38, Kok 37, SDP 34, Vihr 15, Vas 12, SFP 9, KD 5, other 1 (Aland Coalition)

Judicial branch:

highest court(s): Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (consists of the court president and 18 judges); Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 21 judges including the court president and organized into 3 chambers); note – Finland has a dual judicial system – courts with civil and criminal jurisdiction, and administrative courts with jurisdiction over litigation between individuals and administrative organs of the state and communities
judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court judges appointed by the president of the republic; judges serve until mandatory retirement at age 65
subordinate courts: 6 Courts of Appeal; 8 regional administrative courts; 27 district courts; special courts for issues relating to markets, labour, insurance, impeachment, land, tenancy, and water rights

Political parties and leaders:

Center Party or Kesk [Juha SIPILA]
Christian Democrats or KD [Sari ESSAYAH]
Finns Party or PS [Timo SOINI]
Green League or Vihr [Ville NIINISTO]
Left Alliance or Vas [Paavo ARHINMAKI]
National Coalition Party or Kok [Petteri ORPO]
Social Democratic Party or SDP [Antti RINNE]
Swedish People’s Party or SFP [Carl HAGLUND]


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